- also referred to as non-narcotic, peripheral, mild & antipyretic
- also called narcotic, central or strong agents
Nonopiod drugs are used to
treat mild to moderate pain.
Nonopiods are classified into
Aspirin is one of these
types, used to treat mild to moderate pain, inflammation, fever, arthritis
and reduce blood clotting. Aspirin is one of the oldest drugs and is
NSAIDs are used to
treat pain and are similar to aspirin in the mechanism of action, pharmacological
effects, and adverse reactions. NSAIDs are available in nonprescription
& prescription strengths. They are also used to treat rheumatoid
arthritis, osteoarthritis, dysmenorrhea, and additional inflammatory
Acetaminophen is used
to treat pain such as headaches, dental pain, dysmenorrhea, myalgias,
neuralgias and fever particularly in patients who cannot take aspirin.
It does not effect the cardiovascular or respiratory systems and does
not increase bleeding time or cause GI bleeding.
The table below lists some
of the pharmacologic effects and potential adverse effects of these drugs:
The word opiod refers to a
morphine-like compound that affects the opiod receptors, thereby reducing
Narcotic or opiod drugs are
used to treat moderate to severe pain that does not respond to nonopiod
drugs. They are used in the following ways:
reduce the amount of
general anesthesia used
in some cough preparations
in some strong antidiarrheal
Opiods are classified into
three categories based on their opiate receptor activity:
Used to treat moderate to severe pain. Morphine is considered the prototype.
Mixed Opiod Angonist
Used to treat moderate to severe pain. Not commonly used in dentistry.
Physical dependence to Buprenorphine is low and withdrawal is mild.
Used to counteract the pharmacologic and reverse reactions of opiod
agonists and mixed angonists and in the management of overdoses.
Opiods have similar actions
and reactions, so the chart below summarizes these effects for all three
categories of opiods (agonist, mixed angonist, antagonist):
produces sedation at therapeutic doses
may decrease anxiety, increase relaxation and
a feeling of well being
some patients experience feelings of irritability
can decrease coughing. Used in some cough medications
causes decrease in propulsive contractions &
motility, may lead to constipation
reduces the rate & depth of respiration, this
effect is dose dependent.
Opiods are absorbed when administered intramuscularly,
orally, subcutaneously, intravenously, nasally, & transdermally.
The onset of action is quick, with analgesic response occurring
30 to 40 minutes. Opiods are metabolized in the liver and excreted
through the kidneys. They do cross the placental barrier.
Bind to receptors along the pain-analgesia pathway of the central
nervous system, inhibiting pain sensations.
are proportional to the dose of the opiod drug.
of histamine causing itching, and urinary retention.
reduces the rate & depth of respiration, which may cause vasodilation
and increase intracranial pressure. Do not
use for head injury patients.
the most common allergic reactions are itching & rashes. Nausea
& vomiting are often typical side effects & not true allergic